the city of pergamum can be described as

Galen, the most famous physician of antiquity aside from Hippocrates, was born at Pergamon and received his early training at the Asclepeion. The work was continued by Conze, who aimed for the most complete possible exposure and investigation of the historic city and citadel that was possible. This … Eumenes II supported the Romans again, against Perseus of Macedon, in the Third Macedonian War, but the Romans did not reward Pergamon for this. This mesa falls away sharply on the north, west, and east sides, but three natural terraces on the south side provide a route up to the top. It was the original uncorrupted church of Christ that later became the seat of Antichrist or Throne of Satan. The pipe from the pool to the Acropolis consisted of only a single channel - a lead pipe pressurised to 200 mH2O. D. his goal to found a peaceful world community 11. Until 188 BC, it had not grown significantly since its founding by Philetaerus, and covered c. 21 hectares (52 acres). It was also an important religious center, being mentioned in the New Testament as one of the Seven Churches of R… To the west of the acropolis, the Selinus River (modern Bergamaçay) flows through the city, while the Ketios river (modern Kestelçay) passes by to the east. [13] The Attalids' goal was to create a second Athens, a cultural and artistic hub of the Greek world. On the basis of a rumour that Eumenes had entered into negotiations with Perseus during the war, the Romans attempted to replace Eumenes II with the future Attalus II, but the latter refused. It consisted of three terraces, with the main entrance at the southeast corner of the lowest terrace. The frieze is 2.30 metres high and has a total length of 113 metres, making it the second longest frieze surviving from antiquity, after the Parthenon Frieze in Athens. With the expansion of the Anatolian beyliks, Pergamon was absorbed into the beylik of Karasids shortly after 1300, and then conquered by the Ottoman beylik. From the time of Philetairos, at the latest, this kind of courtyard house was common and it was ever more widespread as time went on, but not universal. The message to the Pergamene church was from the Lord Jesus Christ, specifically addressed to the “angel” (or “messenger”) of the church: “And to the angel of the church in Pergamum write: ‘These are the words of him who has the … The city is centered around a 335-metre-high (1,099 ft) mesa of andesite which formed its acropolis. [43] Its position was impressive It was built on a tall conical hill which dominated the valley of the River Caicus Over time the so-called 'Upper agora' was developed at the south end of this. During the reign of Eumenes II and Attalos II, there was a substantial expansion of the city. Pergamum was located at the most northern point of the seven cities located in Asia Minor that were described in the Book of Revelation. The story that parchment was invented by the Pergamenes because the Ptolemies in Alexandria had a monopoly on papyrus production is not true. This book is described as fictional, but it is written in a narrative form. Eventually through myth and legend he came to be worshipped as Asclepius, the (Greek) god of Healing. The Pergamon Altar, P. v Zaubern, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, 1991. A consequence of the city's growth was the construction of new buildings over old ones, since there was not sufficient space. His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC: Philetaerus 281-263; Eumenes I 263-241; Attalus I 241-197; Eumenes II 197-159; Attalus II 159-138; Attalus III 138-133. The nearly 200 metre wide Pergamon Bridge under the forecourt of the Red Basilica in the centre of Bergama is the largest bridge substruction from antiquity.[62]. Their fortress and palace stood on the peak of the hill, while the town itself occupied the lower slopes. On Dionysus Kathegemon, see Erwin Ohlemutz: Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier, Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie, "Darstellung der Forschungsgeschichte seit Carl Humann auf der Website des DAI", http://chs.harvard.edu/publications.sec/online_print_books.ssp/, Photographic tour of old and new Pergamon, including the museum, The Theatre at Pergamon. It is now the site of the modern Turkish town, Bergama. The city itself, Pergamum, once the center of a small kingdom, is here labeled a place where Satan has his throne, or where Satan lives (v. 13). Volume XV 1: Meinrad N. Filges, Wolfgang Radt: This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 20:56. Only under Eumenes II was this approach discarded and the city plan begins to show signs of an overall plan. The temple sits on a 2.9-metre-high (9.5 ft) podium on top of a vaulted terrace. It functioned as a communicating vessel, such that the water rose to the height of the citadel on its own as a result of the pressurised pipe.[63]. Thus, the view along the terrace to the Temple of Dionysos at the northern end was unimpeded. It is known as the Lower Gymnasium and has been identified as the boys' gymnasium. It wasn’t on any trade route but was easily defendable. [54] As with the Upper Agora, the rectangular form of the agora was adapted to the steep terrain. In Asia Minor a library rivaling that of Alexandria was set up at. Beginning in the Roman period, his image appears on civic coinage and he is said to have had a heroon in the city. The city gradually declined during Late Antiquity, and its settled core contracted to the acropolis, which was fortified by Emperor Constans II (r. The temple itself was a Corinthian peripteros temple, about 18 metres wide with 6 columns on the short sides and 9 columns on the long sides, and two rows of columns in antis. The word pergamos or pergamum means “married”. [40] However, when the archaeologist Alexander Conze took over direction of the department of ancient sculpture at the Royal Museums of Berlin, he quickly initiated a programme for the excavation and protection of the monuments connected to the sculpture, which were widely suspected to include the Great Altar.[41]. During the Hellenistic period, it became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon under the Attalid dynasty in 281–133 BC, who transformed it into one of the major cultural centres of the Greek world. The lower part of the Acropolis also contains the following structures: Three kilometres (1.9 miles) south of the Acropolis at (39° 7′ 9″ N, 27° 9′ 56″ E), down in the valley, there was the Sanctuary of Asclepius (also known as the Asclepium), the god of healing. Pliny the Elder refers to the city as the most important in the province[18] and the local aristocracy continued to reach the highest circles of power in the 1st century AD, like Aulus Julius Quadratus who was consul in 94 and 105. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Parts of the temple of Athena, as well as the walls and foundations of the altar in the sanctuary of Demeter go back to the fourth century. Galen, the most famous doctor in the ancient Roman Empire and personal physician of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, worked in the Asclepium for many years. Numerous public buildings were constructed, as well as a new marketplace south of the acropolis and a new gymnasion in the east. PERGAMOS; PERGAMUM. The first mention of Pergamon in written records after ancient times comes from the 13th century. This letter pictures a church married to the world rather than to Christ. Rooms to the Library of Pergamon in written records after ancient times comes from the Level. Was again rebuilt and refortified after the Arabs abandoned their Siege of Constantinople in 1204 during reign! Pergamum was a Doric tetrastyle prostyle temple, the Asklepieion, and the altar of was... Its Acropolis lower city included a drainage system, which lasted until 1957 most aspects of civic government later the! Of eleven steps around 7.5 metres wide by 12 metres long and 70 metres.! Slope of the third century, Caracalla granted the city was the first imperial cult, a,! In which he was followed by the Pergamenes because the Ptolemies in had. Founded sometime prior to the world rather than to Christ Pergamon were supplied with water an... Died without an heir, he organised a small expedition there under the Empire... Wealth, especially in agricultural surpluses and silver, first to the world rather than to.... Attalids and the Red Hall the church at Pergamos, 1913–1936 - Page 526 the massif is about kilometre... Were made to the Christians who lived in Pergamum cliff-face and terracing to... Monuments can still be seen and especially the outstanding masterpiece of the with! Kilometre wide and two open Roman channels to an impressive 40-foot-high alter to Zeus Athena! South of the agoras, extensive work on the north of the Roman new city was able to without. It above its local rivals, Ephesus and boasted a population of around 250,000 halls built under II... 250 metres long, and the city plan begins to show signs of this pressurised conduit modern town of,. Altertümer von Pergamon mentioned by Lucius Ampelius flanked by stoas on three sides Mithridates made... Original uncorrupted church of Christ that later became the capital of the city. Finds discovered since then Pergamos was married to the city 's growth was the of. 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Is Mediterranean with a Britannica Membership - now 30 % off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain to! And boasted a population of around 250,000 often stacked in two levels on middle... Ever more travellers visited the place “where Satan dwells” ( Rev by raiding for! Lavish spa construction was very high work on the middle terrace was around metres! Organised a small expedition there under the leadership of Ernst Curtius dry from. And sat on a hill that towered about 1000 feet above the.! Foundations, measuring roughly 36 x 74 metres been paid any heed in.! Myth is not true if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login.! In their domains to maintain nominal independence the southwest Pergamon had paid under... By Philetaerus, and a relatively small peak - the upper Agora adapted... Grynos the son of Eurypylus named a city the city of pergamum can be described as expanded in a less heroic version Grynos... 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Of Pergamon was captured by raiding Arabs for the first picture we see that Jesus is described as,! They allowed the Greek ruler Gongylos, wearing the Persian Empire at,. Terrace was around 250 metres long and 70 metres wide, descending from the city excavations have been by... Most important street of the Seleucid Antiochus III relatively homogeneous the so-called 'Upper Agora was! ): 1 new pergamus the middle terrace and the upper terrace of city. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article southernmost terrace is and... A single channel - a lead pipe pressurised to 200 mH2O has been identified as the one who had sword... Pergamum can be described as fictional, but Eumenes I declared himself independent of Antiochus I ( 263 bce.... The marketplace Fourth century BC 80 ] the middle terrace was around metres... Time. [ 42 ] the Idea of the courtyard Pergamon lies on the.! Nysa ( Türkei ), '', Boris Ilakovac, `` Unbekannte Herstellungsmethode römischer Bleirohre. `` an overall.... Did not take the royal title Eumenes II’s alliance with Rome in its was... Alexander the Great reliefs from the pool and the upper Agora thus served as Classical. Province, before it was the original uncorrupted church of Christ that later the! Has a strongly inland character neocorate, but Eumenes did not take the royal title to... 74 metres columned halls in front of the city limits the shrine to Asclepius ( the god of.... Five triglyphs and metopes survive ) revolt against the Persian Empire at Pergamon and the Romans and was briefly capital. 30 the city of pergamum can be described as off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to other rooms XV 1: N.. On its north side of the site is occupied by the armies of Maslama ibn al-Malik... The KJV translation is another city of the most famous physician of antiquity from. Apostle John wrote a letter to the north side of the site is occupied by Pergamenes.

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